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Vitamin D Deficiency in School-Age Children Is Associated with Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors
Hooven, Edith H van den
Heijboer, Annemieke C
Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.
Franco, Oscar H
Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
JN: The Journal of Nutrition vol. 145 no. 04 (Apr. 2015)
page 791-798 .
vitamin D deficiency
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Background: There is concern about a reemergence of vitamin D deficiency in children in developed countries. Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe vitamin D status in the Generation R study, a large multiethnic cohort of 6-y-old children in The Netherlands, and to examine sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in 4167 children aged 6 y and defined deficiency following recommended cutoffs. We examined the associations between subject characteristics and vitamin D deficiency with the use of multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ranged from 4 to 211 nmol/L (median: 64 nmol/L), with 6.2% of the children having severely deficient (<25 nmol/L), 23.6% deficient (25 to <50 nmol/L), 36.5% sufficient (50 to <75 nmol/L), and 33.7% optimal (=75 nmol/L) 25(OH)D concentrations. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was higher in winter (51.3%) than in summer (10.3%); and higher in African, Asian, Turkish, and Moroccan children (54.5%) than in those with a Dutch or other Western ethnic background (17.6%). In multivariable models, several factors were associated with vitamin D deficiency, including household income (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.27 for low vs. high income), child age (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.62 per year), child television watching (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64 for =2 vs. <2 h/d), and playing outside (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.89 for =1 vs. <1 h/d). In a subgroup with dietary data (n = 1915), vitamin D deficiency was associated with a lower diet quality, but not with vitamin D intake or supplement use in early childhood. Conclusions: Suboptimal vitamin D status is common among 6-y-old children in The Netherlands, especially among non-Western children and in winter and spring. Important modifiable factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were overall diet quality, sedentary behavior, and playing outside.
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