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ArtikelThe Multichannel Reality of Discourse: Language-Paralanguage-Kinesics and the Totality of Communicative Systems  
Oleh: Poyatos, Fernando
Jenis: Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
Dalam koleksi: Language Sciences (Full Text) vol. 6 no. 2 (1984), page 307-337.
Fulltext: 06_02_Poyatos.pdf (1.64MB)
Isi artikelAlthough verbal language is the most elaborate communication tool, treating it as an autonomous system has always hampered the study of many aspects of communication, for it occurs only accompanied by the two cosystems of paralanguage (voice modifications and independent word-like utterances coded in the vocal/narial-auditory channel) and kinesics (gestures, manners and postures), including the sign-laden nonactivities of silence and stillness. The three systems form the Basic Triple Structure of actual discourse (present in reading and represented or evoked by punctuation), made up, therefore, of verbal and nonverbal segmental and nonsegmental elements, and its multilevel transcription (indispensable for a realistic representation) shows beyond a doubt the fascinating cooccurrence of its components. But what truly constitutes the extreme intricacy of communication is the intimate interconditioning, not only of the speaker's own behavioral and even nonbehavioral activities, but of his and his cointeractant's verbal and nonverbal acts, being all qualified by their location in the communication stream, intensity and duration. A much needed workable classification of paralinguistic and kinesic phenomena is essential for a serious analysis of discourse. The inherent functions of paralanguage and kinesics are seen clearly when considering kinesic and kinesic-paralinguistic language markers, one of the three nonverbal categories, along with identifiers and externalizers, by which personal as well as cultural expressive styles are differentiated, and which simply cannot be ignored if we pretend to understand the reality of spoken language.
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