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ArtikelFear Conditioning and Social Groups: Statistics, Not Genetics  
Oleh: Maia, Tiago V.
Jenis: Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
Dalam koleksi: Cognitive Science vol. 33 no. 7 (Sep. 2009), page 1232–1251.
Topik: Fear conditioning; Latent inhibition; Preparedness; Social groups; Kalman filter
Fulltext: 04. Fear Conditioning and Social Groups - Statistics, Not Genetics.pdf (187.79KB)
Isi artikelHumans display more conditioned fear when the conditioned stimulus in a fear conditioning paradigm is a picture of an individual from another race than when it is a picture of an individual from their own race (Olsson, Ebert, Banaji, & Phelps, 2005). These results have been interpreted in terms of a genetic ‘‘preparedness’’ to learn to fear individuals from different social groups (Ohman, 2005; Olsson et al., 2005). However, the associability of conditioned stimuli is strongly influenced by prior exposure to those or similar stimuli. Using the Kalman filter, a normative statistical model, this article shows that superior fear conditioning to individuals from other groups is precisely what one would expect if participants perform optimal, Bayesian inference that takes their prior exposures to the different groups into account. There is therefore no need to postulate a genetic preparedness to learn to fear individuals from other races or social groups.
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