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Effect of infertility treatment and pregnancy-related hormones on breast cell proliferation in vitro
Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
Human Reproduction vol. 27 no. 01 (Jan. 2012)
fertility treatment estrogen
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BACKGROUND Breast cancer development involves a series of mutations in a heterogeneous group of proto-oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes that alter mammary cells to create a microenvironment permissive to tumorigenesis. Exposure to hormones during infertility treatment may have a mutagenic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells, high-risk breast lesions and early-stage breast cancers. Our goal was to understand the association between infertility treatment and normal and cancerous breast cell proliferation. METHODS MCF-10A normal mammary cells and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 [estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, well differentiated] and HCC 1937 (ER-negative, aggressive, BRCA1 mutation) were treated with the weak ER activator clomiphene citrate and hormones that are increased during infertility treatment. Direct effects of treatment on cell proliferation and colony growth were determined. RESULTS While clomiphene citrate had no effect on MCF-10A cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 versus untreated cells (P= 0.003). Estrogen had no effect on either MCF-10A or HCC 1937 cells but, as expected, increased cell proliferation (20–100 nM; P=0.002) and colony growth (10–30 nM; P< 0.0001) of MCF-7 cells versus control. Conversely, progesterone decreased both proliferation (P= 0.001) and colony growth (P= 0.01) of MCF-10A cells, inhibited colony size of MCF-7 cells (P= 0.01) and decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 cells (P= 0.008) versus control. hCG (100 mIU/ml) decreased both proliferation (P = 0.01) and colony growth (P = 0.002) of all three cell lines. CONCLUSIONS Although these data are preclinical, they support possible indirect estrogenic effects of infertility regimens on ER-positive breast cancer cells and validate the potential protective effect of pregnancy-related exposure to hCG.
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