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Fish-oil supplementation in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or preeclampsia
Zhou, Shao J.
Gibson, Robert A.
Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition vol. 95 no. 06 (Jun. 2012)
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Background: There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy of increasing n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) intake during pregnancy in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia. Objectives: The objective was to determine whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy reduces the incidence of GDM or preeclampsia. A secondary objective was to assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on perinatal complications. Design: This was a double-blind, multicenter randomized control trial—the DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Pregnant women (n = 2399) of <21 wk gestation were randomly assigned to receive DHA-enriched fish oil (800 mg/d) or vegetable oil capsules without DHA from trial entry to birth. The presence of GDM or preeclampsia was assessed through a blinded audit of medical records. Birth outcomes and prenatal complications were also assessed. Results: The overall incidences of GDM and preeclampsia were 8% and 5%, respectively, based on clinical diagnosis. The RR of GDM was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.27) and of preeclampsia was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.25), and they did not differ significantly between the groups. Birth weight, length, and head circumference z scores also did not differ between the groups. There were 12 perinatal deaths and 5 neonatal convulsions in the control group compared with 3 perinatal deaths and no neonatal convulsions in the DHA group (P = 0.03 in both cases). Conclusion: DHA supplementation of 800 mg/d in the second half of pregnancy does not reduce the risk of GDM or preeclampsia. Whether supplementation reduces the risk of perinatal death and neonatal convulsions requires further investigation.
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