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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound reveals real-time spatial changes in vascular perfusion during early implantation in the macaque uterus
Keator, Christopher S.
Lindner, Jonathan R.
Belcik, J. Todd
Bishop, Cecily V.
Slayden, Ov D.
Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
Fertility and Sterility (keterangan: ada di ClinicalKey) vol. 95 no. 04 (Mar. 2011)
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Objective To use contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) to quantify blood flow in the macaque uterus during early pregnancy. Design Prospective nonhuman primate study. Setting Oregon National Primate Research Center. Animals Naturally cycling female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Intervention(s) Female macaques were mated on days 11–14 of the cycle. Females were then imaged by CEU and Doppler ultrasound once every 3 days from day 21 through day 39 of the fertile cycle. Main Outcome Measure(s) Visualization and quantification of uterine vascular perfusion. Result(s) CEU identified the primary placental disc and underlying vessels approximately 2 days earlier than Doppler ultrasound was able to observe endometrial thickening. CEU revealed spatial differences in vascular perfusion between the endometrium, myometrium, and endometrial-myometrial (junctional) zone. Myometrium displayed the highest rate of blood flow (>10 mL/min/g tissue). There was less blood flow in the endometrium and junctional zone (<3 mL/min/g). A brief fall in progesterone was observed during early implantation, which was correlated with reduced blood flow to all three uterine compartments, but did not reduce flow to the placenta. Conclusions CEU provides a sensitive, noninvasive method to assess vascular perfusion of the uterus during embryo implantation in macaques. We propose CEU as a new diagnostic tool to monitor vascular changes associated with early pregnancy in women.
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