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Breast-Feeding Modulates the Influence of the Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-? (PPARG2) Pro12Ala Polymorphism on Adiposity in Adolescents The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study
Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
Diabetes Care vol. 33 no. 01 (Jan. 2010)
Breast-Feeding Modulates the Influence of the Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-? (PPARG2) Pro12Ala Polymorphism
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OBJECTIVE : The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-?2 (PPARG2) Pro12Ala polymorphism has been associated with a higher BMI and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The association between adiposity and PPARG variants can be influenced by environmental factors such as early growth, dietary fat, and (as recently shown) breast-feeding. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) the influence of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on adiposity markers in adolescents and 2) a possible modulating effect of breast-feeding on these associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS : Data on breast-feeding duration, BMI, and genotypes for the Pro12Ala polymorphism were available for 945 adolescents (mean age 14.7 years). The breast-feeding duration was obtained from parental records. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and six skinfold thicknesses. RESULTS : No significant associations between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and any of the above-mentioned anthropometric parameters were found. There were significant interactions between the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and breast-feeding with regard to adiposity measurements (all adjusted P < 0.05). Indeed, in children who had not been breast-fed, Ala12 allele carriers had higher adiposity parameters (e.g., ? BMI +1.88 kg/m2, adjusted for age, sex, and center, P = 0.007) than Pro12Pro adolescents. In contrast, in breast-fed subjects, there was no significant difference between Ala12 allele carriers and Pro12Pro children in terms of adiposity measurements, whatever the duration of breast-feeding. CONCLUSIONS : Breast-feeding appears to counter the deleterious effect of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on anthropometric parameters in adolescents.
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