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Converging Evidence For The `Acquisition- Learning' Distinction
Article from Journal - ilmiah internasional
Applied Linguistics (Full Text) vol. 16 no. 1 (Mar. 1995)
Vol 16, 1, p 35-56.pdf
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Krashen's (1977a, 1977b) 'acquisition-learning' distinction has encountered criticism and, on occasion, harsh attacks since its introduction. This paper argues that the epistemological theory he proposed merits a more sympathetic reappraisal. Contrary to what has been claimed, the theory is not insulated against attempts to disconfirm it. Recent studies examining the effects of explicit positive evidence and/or negative evidence in formal learning provide an important test of the theory. The results of these studies, which postdate the formulation of the theory, are not inconsistent with it. The theory in fact elucidates several aspects of their findings. Recent work on the acquisition of functional categories lends new significance to the existence of the common morpheme orders in English L2. The morphemes can now be seen to relate in central ways to Universal Grammar and the functional theory framework is able to provide a principled account of the L2 hierarchy in relation to the L1 hierarchy. Lastly, research has also made it possible to begin to outline major dimensions on which processes and products of the 'acquired' and 'learned' systems differ. Principles of markedness and differences in computational complexity represent two diagnostic dimensions which promise to discriminate between the two systems.
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